History of Holography

Holography dates from 1947 , when British (native of Hungary) scientist Dennis Gabor developed the theory of holography while working to improve the resolution of an electron microscope.Gabor coined the term Holography from the Greek words holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message". Further development in the field was stymied during the next decade because light sources available at the time were not truly "coherent" (monochromatic or one-color, from a single point, and of a single wavelength).

Gabor
Dr. Dennis Gabor

In 1962 Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan recognized from their work in side-reading radar that holography could be used as a 3-D visual medium. In 1962 they read Gabor's paper and "simply out of curiosity" decided to duplicate Gabor's technique using the laser and an off-axis" technique borrowed from their work in the development of side-reading radar. The result was the first laser transmission Holography of 3-D objects (a toy train and bird). These transmission Holography produced images with clarity and realistic depth but required laser light to view the holographic image.
Gabor


Their pioneering work led to standardization of the equipment used to make Holography . Today, thousands of laboratories and studios possess the necessary equipment: a continuous wave laser, optical devices (lens, mirrors and beam splitters) for directing laser light, a film holder and an isolation table on which exposures are made. Stability is absolutely essential because movement as small as a quarter wave- length of light during exposures of a few minutes or even seconds can completely spoil a Holography . The basic off-axis technique that Leith and Upatnieks developed is still the staple of holographic methodology.

Also in 1962 Dr. Yuri N. Denisyuk from Russia combined holography with 1908 Nobel Laureate Gabriel Lippmann's work in natural color photography. Denisyuk's approach produced a white-light reflection Holography which, for the first time, could be viewed in light from an ordinary incandescent light bulb.
Gabor

Another major advance in display holography occurred in 1968 when Dr. Stephen A. Benton invented white-light transmission holography while researching holographic television at Polaroid Research Laboratories. This type of Holography can be viewed in ordinary white light creating a "rainbow" image from the seven colors which make up white light. The depth and brilliance of the image and its rainbow spectrum soon attracted artists who adapted this technique to their work and brought holography further into public awareness.
Benton's invention is particularly significant because it made possible mass production of Holography using an embossing technique. These Holography are "printed" by stamping the interference pattern onto plastic. The resulting Holography can be duplicated millions of times for a few cents apiece. Consequently, embossed Holography are now being used by the publishing, advertising, and banking industries.
Gabor

In 1972 Lloyd Cross developed the integral Holography by combining white-light transmission holography with conventional cinematography to produce moving 3-dimensional images. Sequential frames of 2-D motion-Sample footage of a rotating subject are recorded on holographic film. When viewed, the composite images are synthesized by the human brain as a 3-D image.

In 70's Victor Komar and his colleagues at the All-Union Cinema and Photographic Research Institute (NIFKI) in Russia, developed a prototype for a projected holographic movie. Images were recorded with a pulsed holographic camera. The developed film was projected onto a holographic screen that focused the dimensional image out to several points in the audience.

Gabor

Holographic artists have greatly increased their technical knowledge of the discipline and now contribute to the technology as well as the creative process. The art form has become international, with major exhibitions being held throughout the world.


Holography Basic

The Holography is based upon Nobel Prize winner Dennis Gabor's theory concerning interference patterns. Gabor theorized in 1947 that each crest of the wave pattern contains the whole information of its original source, and that this information could be stored on film and reproduced. This is why it is called a Holography .


Holography is the only visual recording and playback process that can record our three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional recording medium and playback the original object or scene, to the unaided eyes, as a three dimensional image. The image demonstrates complete parallax and depth-of-field. The image floats in space either behind, in front of, or straddling the recording medium.

3D Holography , Tamper Proof Security Holography Stikers, holography stickers for Authentication and Protection.
High Security Holography
: To combat counterfeiting, to authenticate products and to enhance brand image.

Holography Basic

The Holography is based upon Nobel Prize winner Dennis Gabor's theory concerning interference patterns. Gabor theorized in 1947 that each crest of the wave pattern contains the whole information of its original source, and that this information could be stored on film and reproduced. This is why it is called a Holography .


Holography is the only visual recording and playback process that can record our three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional recording medium and playback the original object or scene, to the unaided eyes, as a three dimensional image. The image demonstrates complete parallax and depth-of-field. The image floats in space either behind, in front of, or straddling the recording medium.

 

In display holography ,the advent of pulsed lasers has made it possible to capture images of plants, animals and humans as well as inanimate objects.

Holographic packaging materials have become popular and cheap.

Security: The use of Holography on credit cards and bank-notes has reduced the opportunity for forgery

Interferometry: If a "double exposure" Holography is made of an object before and after the object is subjected to stress, the change in the shape of the object due to that stress is recorded as a series of light and dark bands. In industrial situations this can be used in component testing and quality control.

Medical records: Medical, dental and other records can be made both for teaching and for documentation.

Measurements: Particle physicists make holographic records of bubble-chambers from which accurate measurements can be made.

Display of artifacts: Many museums have made Holography of valuable articles in their collections, both for insurance purposes and to check for deterioration. In the former Soviet Union exhibitions of Holography of national treasures were sent to remote areas, enabling people to see and appreciate their national heritage without the necessity of travelling to major museums in Moscow or Leningrad (St. Petersburg)

Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs): If a Holography is made of a lens, mirror or other optical element, it acts in the same way as that element. HOEs can be used, for example, in bar-code readers

 

  • Chemicals/Detergents, Fertilisers, Seeds.
  • Building Material/Hardware.
  • Fine jewellery/Watches.
  • Aircraft/ Automative & High Technology/Engineering Spares & Machine(Holography Printer) Parts.
  • Electrical/ Electronic Appliances & Components.
  • Sporting goods, Toys, Gifts/novelties.
  • Recording Media(Music-Diskettes/CDs,Cassettes/Tapes/Software).
  • Clothing Hang-tags, Branded fashion wear & Accessories.
  • Vehical Registration/ Driving Licences, Fare Charts.
  • Certificates (Mark-sheets/ Degree/ Diplomas).
  • Valuable/ Secret/ Confidencial Documents & Envelops.
  • Sequrity/ Financial/ Surety Instruments/ Bonds/ Share Certificates.
  • Books/ Publications/ Copyright Sales Litrature.
  • Loyalty/ Reward/ Vouchers, Passes.
  • Stored value Phone Cards.
  • Bank Cheques/ Draft/ Guarantees.
  • Credit Cards/ Membership/ ID cards.
  • Computer Peripherals.
  • Stationary Products.
  • Automotive Components.
  • Pass-port/ Visa.
  • Excies Revenue Stamps.

List is ever growing & expanding and getting much more widely used.


                                                                                                                                                               Go top

վģ